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Module 3: Risk Factors for FASD

ReferencesReferences

  1. Jacobson, J.L.; Jacobson, S.W.; and Sokol, R.J. 1996. Increased vulnerability to alcohol-related birth defects in the offspring of mothers over 30. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 20(2):359-363.
  2. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. 2005. A Clinician's Guide: Helping Patients Who Drink Too Much. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health.
  3. Ikonomidou, C.; Bittigau, P.; Ishimaru, M.J.; et al. 2000. Ethanol-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration and fetal alcohol syndrome. Science 287:1056-1060.
  4. West, J.R. 1987. Fetal alcohol-induced brain damage and the problem of determining temporal vulnerability: A review. Alcohol and Drug Research 7:423-441.
  5. Maier, S.E., and West, J.R. 2001. Drinking patterns and alcohol-related birth defects. Alcohol Research & Health 25(3):168-174.
  6. Becker, H.C. 1992. The Effects on Fetal and Postnatal Development in Mice. Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.
  7. Randall, C.L. 1987. Alcohol as a teratogen: A decade of research in review. Alcohol and Alcoholism Suppl. L:125-132.
  8. Webster, W.S. 1989. Alcohol as a teratogen: A teratological perspective of the fetal alcohol syndrome. In Crow, K.E.; and Batt, R.D., eds. Human Metabolism of Alcohol. Volume I: Pharmacokinetics, Medicolegal Aspects, and General Interests. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 133-155.
  9. Streissguth, A.P., and Little, R.E. 1994. Alcohol, pregnancy, and the fetal alcohol syndrome, second edition. Biomedical Education: Alcohol Use and Its Medical Consequences, Unit 5 (slide lecture). Project Cork Institute of Dartmouth Medical School. Timonium, MD: Milner-Fenwick.
  10. Stoler, J.M.; Ryan, L.M.; and Holmes L.B. 2002. Alcohol dehydrogenase 2 genotypes, maternal alcohol use, and infant outcome. Journal of Pediatrics 141:780-785.
  11. Abel E.L. 1988. Fetal alcohol syndrome in families. Neurotoxicology and Teratology 10(1):1-2.

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